Food allergy refers to an immune response to a consumed food. This must be distinguished from adverse effects of intolerance or toxicity. For instance, lactose intolerance leads to adverse effects such as bloating, abdominal pain and flatulence with consumed milk. In lactose intolerance, there is an intestinal deficiency of lactase the enzyme for digestion of lactose in milk. In comparison, an allergic reaction to consumed milk is the development of an immediate rash or swelling in the throat. In addition, not all food allergies are immediate. Food allergy can be diagnosed through a careful history, physical exam and appropriate testing by your doctor. To date, the standard treatment of food allergy is avoidance. There are clinical trials in progress to treat food allergy by desensitization.